Ikusasa lezinqubo ze-Linux zebhizinisi • Irejista

Ukukhishwa kokuqala kwe-systemd ka-2023 sekukhona, futhi kwethula ithuluzi elisha elishayayo lokwakha amafayela e-Unified Kernel Image (UKI).

Izinguqulo ezintsha ze-systemd zivela cishe kabili ngonyaka, ngaphandle kwamakhandidethi okukhululwa. Sibike ngenguqulo yokugcina, systemd 252, ngoNovemba ngonyaka odlule. Njengoba sishilo ngaleso sikhathi, i-systemd 252 yaletha ukusekelwa kwe-Agent P’s entsha, inqubo yokuqalisa ye-Linux evikeleke kakhulu. Lezo zindaba ezimbili zinemininingwane yamafayela ebhuthi e-UKI nokuthi asebenza kanjani.

Ukusekelwa nokusetshenziswa kwamathuluzi kwe-UKI kuyaqhubeka nokuba ngcono, futhi esinye sezihlokwana sifaka phakathi inguqulo 253 iyithuluzi ukwakha lezi izithombe ze-kernel ezihlanganisiweokuthiwa ukify. Njengoba amanothi okukhishwa kwe-systemd ethi:

Kusukela ohlelweni olusha ikhasi lemanuwali:

Uthanda noma ungathandi, kubonakala sengathi kungenzeka ukuthi ama-UKI azoba indlela ejwayelekile yokuqala ama-Linux distros amaningi, uma kuphela ngenxa yokusekelwa kwawo kokuvula ngokuzenzakalelayo amadrayivu asebenzisa i-Full Disk Encryption (FDE) ngokuthola okhiye kuma-chips emishini we-TPM2 ahlanganisiwe. . Amakhompyutha aphathekayo amathathu kwamane okugcina aseqalile ukusebenza I-Reg Ideski le-FOSS lifike ne-Windows’ Bitlocker FDE evulwe ngokuzenzakalelayo. (Okukodwa nje akazange kwaba I-Tuxedo Computers’ Stellaris gen 4, ikhompuyutha ephathekayo yokudlala enekhibhodi ekhanyisiwe ye-multicolor. Njengomshini ohloselwe ukusebenzisa i-Linux, lokho akumangazi ngempela.)

Abasebenzisi abaningi bangase bangalokothi bakuqaphele, ngaphandle uma bezama ukuvula ikhompyutha kabili nge-non-Windows OS futhi bathole ukuthi akukho okunye okungakwazi ukufunda idiski. Ungesabi: sine ichaze ukuthi ungayicisha kanjani futhi wenze umshini onjalo ulungele ukusebenza kabili.

Zikhona ezinye izinguquko eziningi, kodwa kufanele zingabonakali kubantu abaningi. Kukhona inketho entsha yokukhawulela inani lememori elinikezwe ichibi lokucindezela uma usebenzisa zswap ukucindezelwa kwendawo yokushintshanisa, isici ingezwe ku- “Linux for Workgroups”, i-AKA kernel 3.11 emuva ngo-2013. We iphakamise ukunika amandla lokhu ngonyaka odlule njengendlela yokuthuthukisa ukusebenza kwamadeskithophu noma ama-laptops ane-RAM elinganiselwe, futhi kungasiza kakhulu, kodwa intengo yokusetshenziswa okuncishisiwe yokushintshashintsha iyanda uhlobo lwe-CPU kanye nesidingo se-block of memory for the cache ecindezelwe.

Njengoba kuchaziwe kwamanye ama-kernel patches ngonyaka odlule, i-zswap iyithuluzi eliyinkimbinkimbi kanye nokusebenzisana kwayo ohlelweni olusebenzisa okuningi. cgroup2 iziqukathi akulula lungisa iphutha.

Ama-tweaks ku- systemd OOM killer phakamisa ukuthi lokhu kusadala izinkinga, njengoba kwenzekile ngisho emuva ku-Fedora 33yingakho I-Linux Mint 21 iyikhubaze ngokuphelele.

Ithuluzi le-systemd-boot, elisetshenziswa ku I-Pop!_OS futhi isibangele usizimanje isekela ezinye izindlela zokulayisha i-kernel ku-Xen hypervisor kanye ne-QEMU hypervisor/emulator, njengakwezinye izindawo ngaphandle kwe-UEFI ESP.

Ukuphathwa kwezinkinga ezimbalwa zesistimu yefayela kuthuthukisiwe. Uma i-systemd ithola ivolumu yokushintshana enosayizi wekhasi owehlukile kulelo elidingwa yisistimu, izoyifometha kabusha ngokuzenzakalelayo, futhi inokuphatha kangcono initrd leyo akuyona i-RAMdisk emsulwa, njenge- overlayfs. Kukhona nosekelo oluqondile lobuchwepheshe esingakaze sihlangane nabo ngaphambilini: HS SREnoma ukuyiqamba igama layo eliphelele, I-Lockheed-Martin Hardened Security yama-Intel processors.

Abaningi ngeke bayithande, kodwa balindele ukuthi i-systemd 253 ivele enguqulweni elandelayo yama-distros amaningi ajwayelekile. Uma lowo mcabango ungaphezu kwamandla, kusekhona okuhloniphekile ukukhetha yama-distros angenayo. ®