Amazinga aphezulu amakhemikhali angadala ubungozi besikhathi eside endaweni yesitimela sase-Ohio, kusho abacwaningi



CNN

Ukuhlaziywa kwedatha evela ku- I-US Environmental Protection Agency izilinganiso zokungcola ezikhishwe esikhungweni sesitimela saseNorfolk Southern e-East Palestine, e-Ohio, ziphakamisa ukuthi amakhemikhali ayisishiyagalolunye kwamashumi amaningi abelokhu eqashwe yi-EPA aphakeme kunalokho obekungatholakala endaweni, ngokusho kweqembu lososayensi abavela eTexas A&M. kanye neCarnegie Mellon University.

Uma amazinga amanye ala makhemikhali ehlala ephezulu, kungaba yinkinga empilweni yezakhamuzi ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, kusho ososayensi. Ukushintsha kwezinga lokushisa noma umoya onamandla kungase kushukumise amakhemikhali futhi awakhiphele emkhathini.

Amazinga aphakeme kakhulu atholakala eMpumalanga Palestine bekungawekhemikhali ebizwa ngokuthi i-acrolein, kusho ukuhlaziya.

I-Acrolein isetshenziselwa ukulawula izitshalo, ama-algae, amagundane nama-microorganisms. Iwuketshezi olucacile ekamelweni lokushisa, futhi inobuthi. Kungabangela ukuvuvukala nokucasuka kwesikhumba, umgudu wokuphefumula kanye nolwelwesi lwamafinyila, ngokusho kwe Izikhungo zase-US Zokulawula Nokuvimbela Izifo.

“Ayiphakamisile kuze kube yilapho ifana ‘nokukhipha ibhilidi’ ukukhathazeka kwezempilo,” kusho uDkt. Albert Presto, uprofesa ohlangene wocwaningo lobunjiniyela bemishini e-Wilton E. Scott Institute for Energy Innovation, eCarnegie Mellon, osebenzayo. ngomzamo wokuqapha amakhemikhali wale nyuvesi eMpumalanga Palestine. “Kodwa uyazi, asazi ngempela ukuthi buyini ubungozi besikhathi eside noma ukuthi lokho kugxilisa ingqondo okubangela leyo ngozi kuzoqhubeka isikhathi eside kangakanani.”

Okuningi kwalokho ososayensi abakwaziyo mayelana nokuchayeka kwamakhemikhali kuvela ekuxhumaneni kwabantu namakhemikhali emsebenzini, kusho u-Preston, okusho ukuchayeka cishe amahora ayisishiyagalombili ngosuku. Abantu manje abahlala e-East Palestine baxhumana njalo namakhemikhali, wathi, futhi umthelela walolo hlobo lokuchayeka emzimbeni womuntu awuqondi ngokugcwele.

I-EPA kanye nezikhulu zikahulumeni wendawo sezisho kaningi ukuthi ukuhlolwa kwazo kukhombisa izinga lomoya endaweni liphephile nokuthi amakhemikhali kufanele ahlakazeke. Kusukela ngeSonto, izikhulu ziye zahlola umoya ezindlini ezingu-578, futhi zithi amazinga okungcoliswa kwamakhemikhali awazange adlule izindinganiso zekhwalithi yomoya yokuhlala.

Imininingwane yokuqapha umoya ye-EPA ikhombisa ukuthi amazinga amakhemikhali aqashwe ngeso lokhozi “angaphansi kwamazinga okukhathazeka ngomthelela omubi wezempilo ngenxa yokuchayeka isikhathi esifushane,” umkhulumeli wesikhungo utshele i-CNN ngoMsombuluko. “Izingozi zesikhathi eside ezishiwo yilokhu kuhlaziya zithatha impilo yonke yokuchayeka, okuhlala kuvezwa cishe iminyaka engama-70. I-EPA ayilindele ukuthi amazinga alawa makhemikhali azohlala ephezulu kunoma yikuphi eduze kwalokho. Sizibophezele ngokuhlala e-East Palestine futhi sizoqhubeka nokuqapha umoya ngaphakathi nangaphandle kwezindlu ukuze siqinisekise ukuthi la mazinga ahlala ephephile ngokuhamba kwesikhathi.”

Kodwa-ke, izakhamizi zibike ukuqubuka nokuphefumula kanzima, kwesinye isikhathi ngisho nasezindlini zazo, kusho uPresto.

“Uma othile ethi kubo, ‘konke kuhamba kahle yonke indawo,’ ukube bengiyilowo muntu, bengingeke ngiwakholelwe lawo mazwi,” esho.

Ngakho ubani oqinisile? Ososayensi bathi akulona udaba olumnyama nomhlophe.

“Ngicabanga ukuthi kubalulekile ukuthi umphakathi ukuqonde ukuthi zonke izinhlangothi zilungile. Akekho oqamba amanga kubo,” kusho uDkt. Ivan Rusyn, umqondisi we-Texas A&M University Superfund Research Center futhi oyingxenye yethimba elenza ucwaningo. “Ukuthi njalo uma ucobelelana ngolwazi, noma ngabe kunjalo Umqondisi we-EPA uMichael Regan noma Umbusi [Mike] I-DeWine noma othile wase-Ohio EPA, lapho ethi izinto ezithile ‘ziphephile,’ kudingeka ngempela achaze ukuthi zisho ukuthini.”

URusyn uthi i-EPA kanye nezikhulu zendawo kumele zenze umsebenzi ongcono wokuxhumana nomphakathi mayelana nobungozi kubahlali uma bechayeka kumakhemikhali akhishwe kule ngozi.

Izinkinga zokuxhumana bezilokhu ziyiphethini engaguquki eminyakeni edlule naphezu kwezinhlekelele zemvelo eziningi, esho. Izikhulu zivame ukwenza umsebenzi omuhle wokuqoqa nokukhipha imininingwane kodwa bese zehluleka ukunikeza ingqikithi efanele umphakathi ozoyiqonda.

“Yilokho engingathanda ukukhuthaza zonke izinhlaka ukuthi zikwenze kunokukhombana ngeminwe,” kusho uRusyn. “Umphakathi jikelele kumele uthembele iziphathimandla. Ukuhlanza kuyaqhubeka. Benza ukuqapha. Sidinga nje ukwenza umsebenzi ongcono wokuxhumana nemiphumela.”

Ukuxhumana kukahulumeni mayelana nezinga langempela lobungozi bezakhamuzi kube umthombo obalulekile wokukhungatheka e-East Palestine, kusho uPresto.

“Abantu bathukuthele. Bazizwa sengathi bathola le mpendulo emnyama nomhlophe – izinto ziphephile noma aziphephile – lapho kungesona isimo esimnyama nesimhlophe,” kusho u-Presto.

I-EPA ithi izoqhubeka nokuqapha izinga lomoya endaweni kanye nasezindlini zabahlali. Futhi isungula isikhungo somphakathi ukuze izakhamuzi nabanikazi bamabhizinisi bakwazi ukubuza imibuzo mayelana nomsebenzi we-ejensi lapho.

Lesi sikhungo sithe siqoqa amasampula omoya angaphandle ukuze kungcoliswe ukukhathazeka, okuhlanganisa i-vinyl chlorideinhlaka yepulasitiki eqinile esetshenziselwa ukwenza imikhiqizo yepulasitiki njengamapayipi noma izinto zokupakisha ezingaba ukukhathazeka komdlavuza; n-butyl acrylate uketshezi olucacile olusetshenziselwa ukwenza ama-resin nemikhiqizo yopende engabangela ukucasuka kwamehlo, umphimbo, ikhala namaphaphu noma ukulimala kanye nokungezwani komzimba nesikhumba; futhi i-ethylhexyl acrylateolunye uketshezi olungenambala olusetshenziselwa ukwenza amapende, amapulasitiki nezinto zokunamathisela ezingabangela ukucasuka kwesikhumba namehlo.

I-EPA iphinde yaqoqa izilinganiso zenkundla ze-hydrogen sulfide, benzene, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, phosgene. kanye nodaba oluthile.

Ososayensi abavela e-Texas A&M kanye ne-Carnegie Mellon baqapha amakhemikhali endaweni besebenzisa ilebhu ephathwayo abayisebenzisile kule minyaka eyishumi edlule ukukala ukungcoliswa komoya ngesikhathi sangempela emadolobheni ezweni lonke. Balindele ukukhipha imininingwane evela ezivivinyweni zabo e-East Palestine ngoLwesibili.

Ilebhu ephathwayo inemishini ebucayi kakhulu engakala ukungcoliswa kwezingxenye ngethriliyoni ngayinye. Ososayensi bazokwazi-ke ukuwahlela kugrafu ukuze babonise, ngesikhathi sangempela, lapho ukugxila kwamakhemikhali kungaba kuphi futhi kukuliphi izinga, kusho uPresto.

Izisebenzi zelebhu ezingomahambanendlwana zizozama ukuthola ukuthi akhona yini amakhemikhali emoyeni EPA ayiqaphile. Babheke namazinga okungcola ezindaweni lapho le nhlangano ingazange imise iziteshi zokuqapha.

“Isimo kumele sibhekwe, futhi i-EPA kufanele iqhubeke nezilinganiso, futhi kufanele futhi ixhumane nomphakathi jikelele ngalokho abakubonayo futhi bakubeke engcupheni, kunokuba basebenzise izinombolo futhi balindele ukuthi abantu bakuthole. bazikhiphe bona,” kusho uRusyn.